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Umbilical Hernia

Undescended Testicles or Cryptorchidism



Umbilical Hernia

A hernia is a bulge of tissue or bodily organ that has passed through a tear or defect in a muscular wall.

Umbilical hernias are the most common types of hernia and occur on the midline of the stomach at the belly button.

Umbilical hernias pose no real health problems since fatty tissue is usually the only item that protrudes through the opening. These hernias can occur with both male and female dogs.

It is easy in bitches to repair an umbilical hernia when they undergo a routine spay or ovariohysterectomy.

If the umbilical hernia does cause discomfort or pain, it would require surgery to repair the abdominal wall as there is the danger of sections of intestine being trapped in a larger hernia.


Undescended Testicles or Cryptorchidism

At birth, the testicles of a puppy are still within his abdomen. As the animal develops, the testicles slowly 'descend' into the scrotum.

Frequently, owners notice that the puppy they just purchased only has one or possibly no testicles within the scrotum.

Although different dates are listed in some of the veterinary literature, both testicles are usually within the scrotum by the time the animal is six weeks of age and they should definitely be there by the time the puppy is eight to ten weeks of age.

If one or both testicles are not present at that location by twelve weeks of age, they probably never will be and the animal is said to be suffering from cryptorchidism or 'retained testicles.'

This is a disorder that is hereditary and may be passed from generation to generation.


These animals rarely show any abnormalities because of this condition. They have normal activity levels, growth, and behaviour.

Although fertility may be affected, they will usually show normal breeding behaviour and frequently impregnate females, especially when one of the testicles has descended into the scrotum.


Dogs with cryptorchidism may have a higher incidence of other testicular diseases. Specifically, these would be cancer and torsion or a twisting of the retained testicle.


Cryptorchid dogs should never be allowed to breed. This is a well-documented genetic trait, passed on to future generations. In addition, because of the potential for an increased incidence of torsion or cancer within the retained testicle, it is strongly recommended that all of these individuals be neutered.

The surgery to remove a retained testicle is more complicated than a routine castration.

The veterinarian must literally search for the testicle, which may be located anywhere from the area around the kidney in the abdomen to the muscle near the groin.



Anterior uveitis is an inflammation that affects the front or anterior part of the eye called the uvea. This is the dark tissue of the eye that contains blood vessels.

The iris – the tissue around the pupil is typically involved. The posterior part of the eye may or may not be affected.

Older animals are more likely to have tumours, and indoor/outdoor pets are more likely to be exposed to infectious causes than pets housed strictly indoors.

Causes of Uveitis:

    • Immune-mediated conditions, in which the body attacks its own tissues
    • Infections from viruses, parasites, fungi and bacteria
    • Tumours or cancers
    • Trauma or injury to the eye
    • Metabolic disease elsewhere in the body that is affecting the eye
    • Idiopathic, which means the cause is unknown
    • Lens-induced, which is caused by the escape of lens protein into the eye fluid and is most frequently associated with cataracts.